Figure (left) Antireflective moth eye structure with ideal shape, (center) Bendable antireflective nanostructures, (right) hierarchical micro-/nanostructure on LED surface
Nanophotonic structures that can be found in nature, such as wings of Morpho butterfly, nipples on Moth eye, and beetle’s cuticle, are mostly formed on arbitrarily curved surfaces in a large scale. On the other hand, man-made nanophotonic structures including photonic crystals, metamaterials, and plasmonics are still in the laboratory level due to their flat and limited size. Key challenges come from these technology gaps. We develop large-scale, flexible or even stretchable nanophotonic structures that can be conformally wrapped on curvilinear-shaped objects without any significant change in operating characteristics, throughout the use of nanofabrication techniques and integration skills of hard/soft materials. Another interesting point is that artificially controlled bending or stretching of this nanostructure can be also used tunability of optic performance. Compelling applications will include reusable, attachable highly sensitive optics sensors on skin or other soft materials. Integration with micro-optic structure will offer broader functionality.
 W. I. Nam, Y. J. Yoo and Y. M. Song, Geometrical shape design of nanophotonic surfaces for thin film solar cells, Opt. Express, 24(14), A1033 (2016).
 H. M. Kim, S. H. Kim, G. J. Lee, K. J. Kim and Y. M. Song, Parametric studies on artificial Morpho butterfly wing scales for optical device applications, J. Nanomater., 2015, 451834 (2015).
 Y. M. Song, Y. Jeong, C. I. Yeo, and Y. T. Lee, Enhanced power generation in concentrated photovoltaics using broadband antireflective coverglasses with moth eye structures, Opt. Express 20, A916 (2012).
 Y. M. Song, G. C. Park, S. J. Jang, J. H. Ha, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, Multifunctional light escaping architecture inspired by compound eye surface structure: From understanding to experimental demonstration, Opt. Express 19, A157 (2011).
 K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, C. J. Hwangbo, H. Yang, and H. S. Lee, Nano-tailoring the surface structure for the monolithic high-performance antireflection polymer film, Adv. Mater. 22, 3713 (2010).
 Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection, Small 6, 984 (2010).